Tuesday, January 21, 2020
ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Domination Over Woman in DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s Baby Differences between people create conflicts between people.Ã This is especially true between men and women, since throughout history society has viewed women as subservient to men.Ã Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s feminist short story, DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s Baby, illustrates manÃ¢â¬â¢s domination over woman.Ã Since Desiree meekly accepts being ruled by Armand, and Armand regards Desiree as his possession, the master/slave relationship that exists between Armand and Desiree is undeniable. Armand believes that since he possesses a superior social position than does Desiree, he is at liberty to be master over her.Ã As a plantation owner and a descendant of the Aubigny family which bears "one of the oldest and proudest [names] in Louisiana" (316), Armand owns tens and hundreds of slaves.Ã In contrast Desiree is adopted into a family without a respected name.Ã Since, "Young Aubigny's rule was a strict oneÃ¢â¬ , he not only treats the slaves as if they were animals, but also treats Desiree as but a beautiful possession.Ã Although Desiree truly loves Armand, the relationship is not reciprocal, which is evident by the fact that Armand has affairs with other women.Ã DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Armand elevates him in the relationship, while ArmandÃ¢â¬â¢s domination over Desiree only makes her more submissive. ArmandÃ¢â¬â¢s ego exhibits his qualities as a master.Ã His respected name, large plantation, and position as a master over slaves inflate his pride.Ã The fact that, Ã¢â¬Å"Armand is the proudest father in the parishÃ¢â¬ ¦ because it is a boy, to bear his nameÃ¢â¬ (317), illustrates that Armand does not truly love his family; instead he sees them as possessions Ã¢â¬â extensions of his property.Ã To Armand the baby serves the purpose of honoring him by ... ...e denies both her and the child, she loses personhood and therefore commits suicide and infanticide. The word, desperately, that describes her love for Armand illustrates how truly attached she is to him.Ã When Armand accuses Desiree of being black and disowns her because he believes this, Desiree completely loses her identity.Ã Without Armand she thinks, Ã¢â¬Å"I shall die. I must die. I cannot be so unhappy, and live.Ã¢â¬ (319). It is not only ArmandÃ¢â¬â¢s dominance, but also DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s meek subservience that kills Desiree and the baby, while ruining ArmandÃ¢â¬â¢s life.Ã In Armand and DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s already teetering master/slave relationship, a trivial conflict over race is the final blow that splits them up.Ã Yet it was the difference between the perceptions of themselves and each other, set in place by a male dominated society, that doomed their relationship even from the beginning. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Domination Over Woman in Kate Chopin's Desiree's Baby Essay ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Domination Over Woman in DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s Baby Differences between people create conflicts between people.Ã This is especially true between men and women, since throughout history society has viewed women as subservient to men.Ã Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s feminist short story, DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s Baby, illustrates manÃ¢â¬â¢s domination over woman.Ã Since Desiree meekly accepts being ruled by Armand, and Armand regards Desiree as his possession, the master/slave relationship that exists between Armand and Desiree is undeniable. Armand believes that since he possesses a superior social position than does Desiree, he is at liberty to be master over her.Ã As a plantation owner and a descendant of the Aubigny family which bears "one of the oldest and proudest [names] in Louisiana" (316), Armand owns tens and hundreds of slaves.Ã In contrast Desiree is adopted into a family without a respected name.Ã Since, "Young Aubigny's rule was a strict oneÃ¢â¬ , he not only treats the slaves as if they were animals, but also treats Desiree as but a beautiful possession.Ã Although Desiree truly loves Armand, the relationship is not reciprocal, which is evident by the fact that Armand has affairs with other women.Ã DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Armand elevates him in the relationship, while ArmandÃ¢â¬â¢s domination over Desiree only makes her more submissive. ArmandÃ¢â¬â¢s ego exhibits his qualities as a master.Ã His respected name, large plantation, and position as a master over slaves inflate his pride.Ã The fact that, Ã¢â¬Å"Armand is the proudest father in the parishÃ¢â¬ ¦ because it is a boy, to bear his nameÃ¢â¬ (317), illustrates that Armand does not truly love his family; instead he sees them as possessions Ã¢â¬â extensions of his property.Ã To Armand the baby serves the purpose of honoring him by ... ...e denies both her and the child, she loses personhood and therefore commits suicide and infanticide. The word, desperately, that describes her love for Armand illustrates how truly attached she is to him.Ã When Armand accuses Desiree of being black and disowns her because he believes this, Desiree completely loses her identity.Ã Without Armand she thinks, Ã¢â¬Å"I shall die. I must die. I cannot be so unhappy, and live.Ã¢â¬ (319). It is not only ArmandÃ¢â¬â¢s dominance, but also DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s meek subservience that kills Desiree and the baby, while ruining ArmandÃ¢â¬â¢s life.Ã In Armand and DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s already teetering master/slave relationship, a trivial conflict over race is the final blow that splits them up.Ã Yet it was the difference between the perceptions of themselves and each other, set in place by a male dominated society, that doomed their relationship even from the beginning.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Conformity and rebellion are evil twins that humanity has been nourishing since the beginning of civilization. As we conform to the social norms that surround us everyday, we are trapped inside of this overwhelming system where we easily lose ourselves as individuals. On the other hand, the urges of rebellion that live in our ego compel us to break from the state of our bondages. Yet, our superegos are trying to keep us in a reasonable threshold, and enable us to stay in the system. As a result, people are fighting a constant internal battle of conformity versus rebellion. As Herman Melville describes in his story Ã¢â¬Å"Bartleby the Scrivener,Ã¢â¬ humanity is hopelessly struggling between conformity and rebellion. He presents us with images of entrapment and death to address his concerns for the issues of conformity and rebellion. The images of entrapment are evident throughout the story. From the Ã¢â¬Å"lofty brick wallÃ¢â¬ outside of the office window to the sound-dividing prison walls which Bartleby died within, the narrator traps the readers in his dark replica of reality. Looking out the office windows, Ã¢â¬Å"the light came down from far above, between two lofty buildings, as from a very small opening in a dome.Ã¢â¬ The physical confinement of their dark and depressed office space is apparent through the images of the dim lighting and restricted view. For Bartleby, the confinement is no longer physical but psychological. Ã¢â¬Å"From his long-continued motionlessness, that behind his screen he must be standing in one of those dead-wall reveries of his.Ã¢â¬ This unusual behavior is a common act of such character. It is not the act of boredom but desperation and hopelessness that disintegrates from within and disables him from engaging in any productive activates. As the narrator takes the readers to the final resting place of Bartleby, he portrays the ultimate human confinement, the prison. The extreme thickness of the prison walls Ã¢â¬Å"kept off all sound behind them.Ã¢â¬ The images of entrapment are clear, that the inescapable prison walls trap any living souls inside of their boundaries. However, to Bartleby it is just another empty place, for his soul has already died long ago. The walls only keep off the outside world from him rather than restricting the already seized motions of BartlebyÃ¢â¬â¢s. It is the place where Bartleby chooses to escape from all, and rest for an eternity Ã¢â¬Å"with kings and counselors.Ã¢â¬ Images of death come as a natural companion of entrapment. The character of Bartleby appears ghostly and lifeless. He is Ã¢â¬Å"a motionless young man,Ã¢â¬ who works quietly like a machine in his dark and confined space. Unlike the way the narrator describes the other three employees of his, Bartleby has no anger, no ambition, and almost nothing human about him at all. The Ã¢â¬Å"idly cadaverousÃ¢â¬ response, Ã¢â¬Å"I would prefer not toÃ¢â¬ from Bartleby, implies that this manÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit has died long before his physical death. There is nothing in this world excites him or motivates him, leaving him only dreaded depression. This emotional emptiness must drive Bartleby to insanity, to the extent that he gives up all life burdens including basic biological functions such as eating and sleeping. Later in the story, Bartleby is sent to the Ã¢â¬Å"Tombs,Ã¢â¬ because of the uncooperative nature of this man. The name of the jail Ã¢â¬Å"TombsÃ¢â¬ carries a symbolic meaning of death. In the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the interior of the jail: Ã¢â¬Å"the Egyptian character of the masonry weighed upon me with its gloom,Ã¢â¬ he reinforces the indestructible and inevitable power of death with these chilling images. The images of entrapment and death are excellent representations of to the concept of conformity and rebellion, whereas Bartleby lives with the entrapment of his unfulfilling life, and finally chooses death as his ultimate rebellion. The narrator, Herman Melville, constructs the abstract character, Bartleby, to extract and speak for his desperation and hopelessness feeling towards the fate of humanity as a whole. Quite like the dilemma Melville brought to our attention a half century ago, societies today are still struggling with issues of conformity and rebellion. We are so driven by the Ã¢â¬Å"errands of life,Ã¢â¬ and rarely stop and think about the reasons of our very existence. As the train of life speeds us to the final destination, we realize that we have traveled the exact same track as everyone else did.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Microtubules are fibrous, hollow rods that function primarily to help support and shape the cell. They also function as routes along which organelles can move throughout the cytoplasm. Microtubules are typically found in all eukaryotic cells and are a component of the cytoskeleton, as well as cilia and flagella. Microtubules are composed of the protein tubulin. Cell Movement Microtubules play a huge role in movement within a cell. They form the spindle fibers that manipulate and separate chromosomes during the mitosis phase of the cell cycle. Examples of microtubule fibers that assist in cell division include polar fibers and kinetochore fibers. Animal Cell Microtubules Microtubules also form cell structures called centrioles and asters. Both of these structures are found in animal cells, but not plant cells. Centrioles are composed of groupings of microtubules arranged in a 9 3 pattern. Asters are star-shaped microtubule structures that form around each pair of centrioles during cell division. Centrioles and asters help to organize the assembly of spindle fibers that move chromosomes during cell division. This ensures that each daughter cell gets the correct number of chromosomes after mitosis or meiosis. Centrioles also compose cilia and flagella, which allow for cell movement, as demonstrated inÃ sperm cells and cells that line the lungs and female reproductive tract. Cell movement is accomplished by the dis-assembly and re-assembly of actin filaments and microtubules. Actin filaments, or microfilaments, are solid rod fibers which are a component of the cytoskeleton. Motor proteins, such as myosin, move along actin filaments and cause cytoskeleton fibers to slide alongside one another. This action between microtubules and proteins produces cell movement.
Saturday, December 28, 2019
around the purchase of goods that bring us pleasure but not sustenance. You are welcome to draw your own metaphorically resonant conclusions from this fact. One of the big misconceptions about slavery, at least when I was growing up, was that Europeans somehow captured Africans, put them in chains, stuck them on boats, and then took them to the Americas. The chains and ships bit is true, as is the America part if you define America as America and not as Ã¢â¬ËMerica. But Africans were living in all kinds of conglomerations from small villages to city-states to empires, and they were much too powerful for the Europeans to just conquer. And, in fact, Europeans obtained African slaves by trading for them. Because trade is a two-way proposition,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But itÃ¢â¬â¢s worth underscoring that each slave had an average four square feet of space. That is four square feet. As one eyewitness testified before Parliament in 1791, Ã¢â¬Å"They had not so much room as a man in his coffin.Ã¢â¬ Once in the Americas, the surviving slaves were sold in a market very similar to the way cattle would be sold. After purchase, slave owners would often brand their new possession on the cheeks, again just as they would do with cattle. The lives of slaves were dominated by work and terror, but mostly work. Slaves did all types of work, from housework to skilled crafts work, and some even worked as sailors, but the majority of them worked as agricultural laborers. In the Caribbean and Brazil, most of them planted, harvested and processed sugar, working ten months out of the year, dawn until dusk. The worst part of this job, which was saying something because there were many bad parts, was fertilizing the sugar cane. This required slaves to carry 80 pound baskets of manure on their heads up and down hill. When it came time to harvest and process the cane, speed was incredibly important because once cut, sugar sap can go sour within a day. This meant that slaves w ould often work 48 hours straight during harvest time, working without sleep in the sweltering sugar press houses where the cane would be crushed in hand rollers and then boiled. Slaves often caught their hands in the rollers, and their overseers kept a
Thursday, December 19, 2019
EI, Decision-Making, and Leadership: A Self-Assessment The newest additions to leadership and the traits organizations now seek out includes Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Decision-Making (DM). Acknowledging the transformation of emotions from a negative unwanted factor to a positive, successful factor in organizational terms is essential in today sÃ¢â¬â¢ job market. Moreover, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational view, EI is indispensable to the effectiveness of leadership (Fambrough, Hart, 2008). The fact that employees with high EI build solid organizational foundations while those with lower EI are problematic for their organization. Additionally, research has indicated EI equipped leaders think clearly and accurately about emotions that are capable of anticipating or coping with change more effectively (Mayer, Caruso, 2002). Knowing EI is one of two commodities sought by organizations is useful; knowing the second is necessary. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Organizations also seek leaders who are successful at DM also to EI. Organizations view the three step process of DM as: recognizing a problem, choosing alternative solutions from existing choices, and assessing the results as a cognitive and desired characteristic (Tambe, Krishnan, 2000). Furthermore, many DM events are understood as other than linear decisions which require creative structure from the messy chaos. The DM process is believed to incorporate many desired characteristics that include: proactivity, willingness, incremental stepShow MoreRelatedThe Emotional Intelligence Test, Decision Making1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLeadership style is significant in creating organizational success and being an effective leader. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style is dependent upon a variety of circumstances such as, biases, decision-making abilities, situation, environment, culture, gender, emotional intelligence, and personality. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about theAustralian Skin Clinics Franchise. Answer: Australian Skin Clinics- History and Growth Australian skin clinics franchise is one of the successful and highly rated medi-aesthetic businesses operating in Australia and offers cosmetic treatments. The business franchise is owned by the CEO Deb Farnworth-wood who acquired it in 2007 during a holiday with the family at the Gold Coast. According to Murphy (2015), Deb spotted a huge opportunity in the non-surgical treatment industry and foresaw the success of cosmetic treatment. The initial Australian skin clinic came into existence in 1996 founded by an Australian doctor in Queensland with a vision of franchise it in Australia (Australian Skin clinics 2016). The business concentrated on simple and limited treatments such laser and skin rejuvenation in the Gold Coast. Over the past eight years, the single business has developed to a successful franchise operating in the main Australian states. According to Whichfranchise (2016), the CEO spent the initial years of the firm acquisition creating models, enhancing efficiencies and focusing on quality treatment across gender and age. The CEO initiated a pilot project for twelve months to access the functionality of a franchise that emerged to be very successful and prompted them to open another pilot project in a different city that gave birth to the franchise in 2011 (Australian Skin Clinics 2016). The employees of the initial clinic shared Deb vision and mastered the system that enabled the development of a culture of innovativeness and excellence that has propelled the franchise to growth and success (Campbell 2016). Over the past four years, the start-up acquired an efficient supply chain and, launched training camps to sharpen the skills of employees (Businessfranchiseaustralia 2016). Faced with f inancial difficulties during the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), the franchise initiated post-GFC measures to funds its business growth. The Australian skin clinic franchise grew in capacity from seven employees to twenty-seven employees in the initial clinic prompting the CEO to initiate training and development programs for the staff. Currently, the Australian skin clinics franchise is the leading provider of cosmetic treatment in Australia having hit tremendous growth and achievement in the past four years. The start-up has 24 skin clinics in the main Australian states employing more than 50 staffs comprising a skilled General Manager and an advisory board (Stowe 2016). The franchise has been registering revenue growth over the years attaining a 78% increase in revenue in 2014 to hit $25.5 million and a remarkable $29.54 million in 2015 positioning itself at 7th in the 2015 BRW fast starters list (Whichfranchise 2016). Moreover, the start-up has grown to extend its acne management training programs to doctors across Australia, New Zealand and in Europe (Hunwick 2016). Background of the Start-up Deb Farnworth-wood Family Background Deb Farnworth-wood born in the UK attributes her success to the family values and attitudes instilled in her by the family background. According to The CEO Magazine (2015), Deb embraced her family beliefs of learning everything you can about anything as one does not know when he will need the knowledge. The family philosophy drove her to venture in different jobs. Before purchasing the Australian skin clinic business, Deb worked in retail chain stores and hospitality sectors in the UK and spent more than 15 years in the British health industry and acquired significant knowledge in the running of business. Morrison (2006) note that open to learning is a key character to successful entrepreneurs. Deb worked in all aspects of the business; stocking taking, audit, display, receipt warehouse, security and on-floor sells. The approval of her various jobs by the family motivated her to own a pharmacy in Britain without knowledge of a pharmacist. Additionally, the family philosophy of contin uous learning sent her to school and acquired an MBA in Business Administration and also enrolled for a diploma in Nutrition. The family nurtured her character of honest and pursuit for credibility. Farnworth-wood admits that she learned to be sincere and truthful in her conduct to avoid harming others; an aspect that has earned her loyal business customers. According to Bradberry (2011), building trust to consumers translate to success in business. The family background gave her a chance to exercise integrity as a virtue insisted by the parents. Social-Cultural Background Deb Farnworth-wood grew in a society with much emphasis on women empowerment. She enrolled in Margret Thatcher women empowerment programs that enabled her to grow in the ranks of the business organization through promotion. White (2015) notes that Deb rose from office administration to regional administrator courtesy of the empowerment programs. The training exposed her to different post laying grounds for successful self-employment. The UK culture of self-love and the need to feel and look good motivated her to venture in cosmetic treatments to promote self-esteem. Deb participated in the Cambridge diet program in 2011 where she lost 28.6 kg through meal replacement (Hunwick 2015). The need to instill self-confidence to all people drove her to acquire the aesthetic and cosmetic clinic. Hence, a culture that valued beauty and self-appreciation opened up the ideas of buying Australian skin clinic. Description of the Start-up The Australian skin clinics franchise is propelled by a mission of making people feel and look good about themselves through affordable and accessible cosmetic treatments. The franchise engages in laser hair removal to give a silky smooth skin irrespective of the skin and hair type. Another treatment, the laser rejuvenation, aims at addressing acne problems, pigmentation and even out the skin tone to give the clients a smoother appearance (Australian Skin Clinics 2016). Moreover, the franchise engages in cosmetics injectable treatment aimed at addressing wrinkles and reducing lines that restore a youthful look to clients. Skin tightening and microdermabrasion aims at bringing out a smoother and younger skin through exfoliation of the outer skin. Furthermore, the franchise offer skin peel and fractional RF that deals with issues of sun damage and pigmentation and removing of stretch marks and wrinkles respectively. Competitive Advantage The Australian skin clinic franchise brand has differentiated itself from competitors through the wide range of services. Murphy (2015) note that the start-up offer affordable and accessible high-quality cosmetic treatment. Additionally, the franchise has invested in the skills of the employees through constant training giving the customers unique services. The Franchise has high-quality machines in beautiful and appealing buildings that draw the attention of potential consumers (Australian Skin Clinics 2016). According to Whichfranchise (2016), the franchise is perceived as a medical model and not as a beauty parlor. The Australian skin clinic franchise has outdone the competition through a culture of customer concerns aiming at making people feel and look good. The training of staffs and having licensed stations in the main states builds credibility and wins more customers. Future Entrepreneurial Suggestions Deb Farnworth-wood can invest in natural food and Fruits Company to enable her fulfills the philosophy of making people feel and look good. The entrepreneur seeks to promote good-looking skin and beautiful healthy bodies and, the launch of a natural foods and drinks business without any chemicals will promote healthy living and naturally radiant skins. Moreover, Deb has a diploma in nutrition and could open a diet consultation firm and guide people on the best foods for the skin and healthy body in Australia. The right diet mix would give people a healthy life that would grow their self-esteem and confidence (Sunshine Coast Daily 2016). Furthermore, exercises are one of the best ways of gaining a healthy body and rejuvenated skin. Deb could start a business in fitness centers to give the Australian people a place to exercise and build healthy bodies. The Australian skin clinics franchise can launch more stations in neighboring countries and other continents. The skin problems are common across the world, and the franchise can tap into the huge market globally and compete with international skin clinic franchises. Additionally, the franchise can open up a fully equipped medical facility to diversify its services even more and allow people access medical services and skin treatment in one room. References Australian Skin Clinics., 2016. Australian Skin Clinics | Laser Skin Clinics QLD, VIC NSW. [online] Available at: https://www.ozskin.com/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Australian Skin Clinics., 2016. Our History -. [online] Available at: https://www.ozskin.com/about-us/our history.htm [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Australian Skin Clinics., 2015. CEO Magazine Spotlight on Deb Farnworth-Wood -. [online] Available at: https://www.ozskin.com/media/ceo-magazine-features-deb-farnworth-wood-2/ [Accessed 10 Sep. 2016]. Bradberry, J., 2011. 6 secrets to startup success: how to turn your entrepreneurial passion into a thriving business. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. Businessfranchiseaustralia.com.au., 2016. Deb Farnworth-Wood named as QLD Finalist for EY Entrepreneur Of The Year | Business Franchise Australia. [online] Available at: https://www.businessfranchiseaustralia.com.au/latest-news/deb-farnworth-wood-named-qld-finalist-ey-entrepreneur-year [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Campbell, J., 2016. Asia-Pacific Centre for Franchising Excellence | "Change or Die": Prominent CEO shares strategy with franchisors. [online] Franchise.edu.au. Available at: https://www.franchise.edu.au/home/topics/franchise-management-topics/change-or-die-prominent-ceo-shares-strategy-with-franchisors [Accessed 10 Sep. 2016]. Hunwick, S., 2016. Australian Skin Clinics launches academy. [online] Professional Beauty. Available at: https://www.professionalbeauty.com.au/2016/01/06/australian-skin-clinics-moves-into-education/#.V9PWOKLnFnI [Accessed 10 Sep. 2016]. Hunwick, S., 2015. BRW awards Australian Skin Clinics. [online] Professional Beauty. Available at: https://www.professionalbeauty.com.au/2015/10/22/brw-awards-australian-skin-clinics/#.V9BoI6LnFnI [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Morrison, A., 2006. A contextualisation of entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior Research, 12(4), pp.192-209. Murphy, S., 2015. CEO Magazine Spotlight on Deb Farnworth-Wood -. [online] Australian Skin Clinics. Available at: https://www.ozskin.com/media/ceo-magazine-features-deb-farnworth-wood-2/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Stowe, A., 2016. A franchise fast-starter: how Australian Skin Clinics grew and grew. [online] Franchise Business. Available at: https://www.franchisebusiness.com.au/news/a-franchise-fast-starter-how-australian-skin-clini [Accessed 10 Sep. 2016]. Sunshine Coast Daily., 2016. Diet's impressive results. [online] Available at: https://www.sunshinecoastdaily.com.au/news/diets-impressive-results/331646/ [Accessed 10 Sep. 2016]. The CEO Magazine., 2015. Deb Farnworth-Wood. [online] Available at: https://www.theceomagazine.com/business/deb-farnworth-wood/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Whichfranchise.net.au., 2016. Interview with Deb Farnworth-Wood of Australian Skin Clinics. [online] Available at: https://www.whichfranchise.net.au/index.cfm?event=getInterviewarticleId=2101 [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. White, S., 2015. Meet the boss: Deb Farnworth-Wood. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: https://www.smh.com.au/business/meet-the-boss-deb-farnworthwood-20150615-ghol9u.html [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016].
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Woman At Work Women at Work In colonial America, women who earned their own living usually became seamstresses or kept boardinghouses. But some women worked in professions and jobs available mostly to men. There were women doctors, lawyers, preachers, teachers, writers, and singers. By the early 19th century, however, acceptable occupations for working women were limited to factory labor or domestic work. Women were excluded from the professions, except for writing and teaching. The medical profession is an example of changed attitudes in the 19th and 20th centuries about what was regarded as suitable work for women. Prior to the 1800s there were almost no medical schools, and virtually any enterprising person could practice medicine. Indeed, obstetrics was the domain of women. Beginning in the 19th century, the required educational preparation, particularly for the practice of medicine, increased. This tended to prevent many young women, who married early and bore many children, from entering professional careers. Although home nursing was considered a proper female occupation, nursing in hospitals was done almost exclusively by men. Specific discrimination against women also began to appear. For example, the American Medical Association, founded in 1846, barred women from membership. Barred also from attending men's medical colleges, women enrolled in their own for instance, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, which was established in 1850. By the 1910s, however, women were attending many leading medical schools, and in 1915 the American Medical Association began to admit women members. In 1890, women constituted about 5 percent of the total doctors in the United States. During the 1980s the proportion was about 17 percent. At the same time the percentage of women doctors was about 19 percent in West Germany and 20 percent in France. In Israel, however, about 32 percent of the total number of doctors and dentists were women. Women also had not greatly improved their status in other professions. In 1930 about 2 percent of all American lawyers and judges were women in 1989, about 22 percent. In 1930 there were almost no women engineers in the United States. In 1989 the proportion of women engineers was only 7.5 percent. In contrast, the teaching profession was a large field of employment for women. In the late 1980s more than twice as many women as men taught in elementary and high schools. In higher education, however, women held only about one third of the teaching positions, concentrated in such fields as education, social service, home economics, nursing, and library science. A small proportion of women college and university teachers were in the physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, and law. The great majority of women who work are still employed in clerical positions, factory work, retail sales, and service jobs. Secretaries, bookkeepers, and typists account for a large portion of women clerical workers. Women in factories often work as machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. Many women in service jobs work as waitresses, cooks, hospital attendants, cleaning women, and hairdressers. During wartime women have served in the armed forces. In the United States during World War II almost 300,000 women served in the Army and Navy, performing such noncombatant jobs as secretaries, typists, and nurses. Many European women fought in the underground resistance movements during World War II. In Israel women are drafted into the armed forces along with men and receive combat training. Women constituted more than 45 percent of employed persons in the United States in 1989, but they had only a small share of the decision-making jobs. Although the number of women working as managers, officials, and other administrators has been increasing, in 1989 they were outnumbered about 1.5 to 1 by men. Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 1970 were paid about 45 percent less than men for the same jobs; in 1988, about 32 percent less. Professional women did not get the important assignments and promotions given to their male colleagues. Many cases before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1970 were registered by women charging sex discrimination in jobs. Working women often faced discrimination on the mistaken belief that, because they were married or would most likely get married, they would not be permanent workers. But married women generally continued on their